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Archeological Object

Book of the Dead of Herij-em-hotep


Book of the Dead of Herij-em-hotep
The papyrus, with widespread gaps in different parts, contains the Book of the Dead written in hieroglyphs for Herij-em-hotep, the treasurer of the Temple of Isis. Five sections of the papyrus are preserved and a sixth of which only the beginning remains. 
Starting to examine the papyrus from the right, the first section preserves the beginning of the funeral text and in fact a horizontal line of hieroglyphics, whose beginning is traced in red ink, says: "The start of formulas to exit a day and to have an increased bright spirit, to say the day of the funeral, to enter and exit, by the Osiris, the treasurer of the House of Gold of the temple of Isis, Herijemhotep”. In the vignette below the funerals of the deceased are represented and in particular on the left one sees the sarcophagus placed on a boat equipped with a useful slide to drag the body of the deceased to the tomb; on the sides of the boat the goddesses Isis and Nephthys raise their arms to protect the deceased. The nineteen columns of text below, to be read from right to left, contains the I (first)chapter. 
The second section consists only of images and is divided into four registers. 
The first register: the deceased is depicted standing with his hands raised in the act of adoring the solar boat; 
the second register: the solar disk, painted bright red, emanates down his beneficial rays while on the sides the goddess Isis and the goddess Nephthys are kneeling in the act of worship; the third register: the god Shu is represented while holding up the solar disk and at the sides two images of ba and four cynocephali that greet the sunrise are shown; the fourth register: a priest performs the rites of purification on the offering table set before the deceased; in fact the priest pours -hes holy water from a pot, while in the other hand he carries a censer. The third section consists of two figurative scenes in which the deceased is represented in the presence of many deities, and from the two pieces of text, that contains the XVIII chapter.
Then comes the fourth section that is entirely occupied by the representation of (the weighing of the souls) psychostasis: within a naos supported by papyrus columns the god Osiris is seated on a throne before the images of the Four sons of Horus, resting on a large open lotus flower; the image of the "Devourer" follows behind which there is the god Thoth, ready to record the outcome of the trial. Below the scale are represented the gods Horus and Thoth who handle the ropes that hold the scale pans, on which rested the heart of the deceased (in gaps) and the feather of the goddess Maat (of which only the upper part remains). Finally there is the image of the deceased who is introduced in the "Hall of the two Truths", where the trial takes place and he is exactly depicted between two women with a feather on their heads, the personifications of the Maat. At the top, under the groove of the frame, the deceased worships the 42 gods that make up the divine tribunal.

The fifth section is fragmentary and shows the C chapter of the Book of the Dead; in the vignette the god Osiris mummiform is represented, placed between a Djed - pillar and the symbol of the East; the solar boat is also depicted, on which is the god Ra, of whom only the lower part, remains and the Benu - bird, which is cited in the second column of the text below.

The fragment of the sixth section closes the series of images, of which remain only two fragmentary representations of the god Thoth.

Further information
Identificazione (Label is not translated)
  Inventory number: inv. 106
Precedenti_localizzazioni (Label is not translated)
  Provenance: Unknown
Object
  Definizione: Papyrus with writing
  Class and ware: Funerary furnishings
  Title or subject: Book of the Dead of Herij-em-hotep
Cronologia (Label is not translated)
  Period: Late period
Dati_tecnici (Label is not translated)
  Height: 36
  Width: 199
  Varie: Painted papyrus
Bibliography
  Bibliography: 1964, Botti G. “I cimeli egizi del Museo di Antichità di Parma” in Accademia Toscana di Scienze e Lettere “La Colombara”, vol. IX, Firenze, pp. 43 - 56 (cat. 106), tav. XII